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18 2020 .

2019 2020 . , - , 2019 , $700, $1920 . , , $2500, , 75% 12 . - . , , , . London Bullion Market Association (LBMA), , , . : . , , .

2000 , . , , : , . 2015 , , Volkswagen . , .

έ 2017 16 , 2018 .

, , 2019 . LBMA, 2018 - 2019 , (, , ). 3,1%, $1268 . 17,5% $1537. , , .

2019 , . . ӭ , - Johnson Matthey, . , China 6 , Tier 3 , Euro 6d , Bharat 6 , 2019 .

2019 , , , China 6 . , 30%. , China 6, , , 2,56 , - Johnson Matthey. 2023 .

, 70% , , . 2% 3% , 5% 2%. , : 4% 13% .

2020 , , 4,8% 4- 2019 , , 1,8 (15% ). 2023 , 2,34 , .

, , . - .

, , . .

, 41% . 2019 2,922 702 . . , . , , , 4,3 . . - Anglo American Platinum (Amplats), , Sibanye-Stillwater, 2,1 , Impala Platinum 850 . .

2019 , , 7,1 ( 250 . 2018 ). 3,3 ( 100 . ). , , , , 600 . .

ѭ 2018 10,1 9,3 2016 , , 8,6 7,9 , Johnson Matthey.

Johnson Matthey 2019 809 . 121 . . , . 2015 3 0,6 , Bloomberg. ETF ... , - Johnson Matthey.

, 2020 4% ( 400 . ) 3% ( 300 ). 2025 . , , . . , e , . , , - .

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, , 45% . , , Bloomberg . , , , - .

, . , . , . .

, , Amplats . 1 , , : , . , , . .

έ , $2000 , $2500.

BofA 2020 82% - $2988 ( 22% ) $3,5 . IV 2020 . 2021 102% - $2625 .

ABN Amro 2020 27%, $1968 , , . 2021 ABN Amro c 10%, $1613 .

LBMA 2020 Precious metals forecasts survey $2116 . $2500, . , 38% 2019 , 2,5%. 2020 . , , (bumpy ride) 2020 , - LBMA.

, . LBMA, , 2019 , $2485. , , , , ETF 2 , 1 , . , , , , . 8 . , , .

.

, , , .

, , , , Mining Technology ..

, - , . , Ivanhoe feasibility study Platreef , 219 . . North American Palladium - Lac Des Illes 2,32 2027 . Platinum Group Metals, Implats JOGMEC, $874 Waterberg , 19,5 . , Waterberg , 420 . 45 . , , , , ; , .

, ABN Amro. , , . , , , . , . , $1500 , ABN Amro.

ŭ . , 21%, , . 2019 $675, .

Bank of America Merrill Lynch, - , . , , ( 10,2 ). . , 12-18 , Financial Times Bank of America . - , .

, , $600 , c , - Johnson Matthey.

, Johnson Matthey , . , , - Johnson Matthey.

, , , Johnson Matthey. . - , , , . , , , 2-3 , - Johnson Matthey.

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